Well established is that during fluoroscopy assisted interventions, depending on factors such as patient obesity, procedural complexity and fluoroscopy time, medical practitioners are subjected to relatively high radiation exposure.¹

The current standards and practices are based on the premise that any radiation dose may result in unfavorable health effects.²'³ The risks for radiation-induced diseases are associated with uncertainties regarding biological effects and individual sensitivity.⁴'⁵ Being exposed to harmful radiation may cause diseases such as: anxiety/depression⁶, cancer⁷ and cognitive impairments.⁸'⁹

Alarmingly, over 50% of OR staff do not feel adequately protected from the scatter radiation.¹⁰ However, the risk for developing radiation-induced diseases is still an ongoing debate among experts.¹¹


+ anxiety/depression⁶

+ tumors/cancer⁷

+ cognitive impairments⁸'⁹


+ back/neck pain from using heavy and uncomfortable radiation protection devices.¹²

A study on brain tumors occurring in medical practitioners with exposure to ionizing radiation documented 85% left sided malignancy.

Data available for 35 of 45 cases on the side of the brain involved. The malignancy was left-sided in 30 (85%), midline in one, and right-sided in four cases. This accumulation of left-sided versus right-sided tumors could be due to the operator's routine working position in which the left side of the head is closest to the scatter radiation coming from the patient.⁷

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2. ICRP, 2018. Occupational radiological protection in interventional procedures. ICRP Publication 139. Ann. ICRP 47(2).
3. Miller, D.L., et al., Occupational radiation protection in interventional radiology: a joint guideline of the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology Society of Europe and the Society of Interventional Radiology. Cardiovascular Interventional Radiology, 2010. 33(2): p. 230-9.
4. Lee, W. H., Nguyen, P. K., Fleischmann, D., & Wu, J. C. (2016). DNA damage-associated biomarkers in studying individual sensitivity to low-dose radiation from cardiovascular imaging. European heart journal, 37(40), 3075-3080.
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6. Andreassi MG., Piccaluga E., Guagliumi G., et al. Occupational health risks in cardiac catheterization laboratory workers. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;9:e003273.
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case-control study. The FASEB Journal, 19(8), 998-999.
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aortic repair. Circulation, 136(25), 2406-2416.
10. O’Sullivan N., Naughton A., McKevitt K., Boyle E., Egan B., Tierney S., Intra-Operative Radiation Safety; Who does what? Who knows what? Department of Vascular Surgery, Tallaght University Hospital, Dublin 24, Ireland.
11. Roguin, A., & Nolan, J. (2021). Radiation protection in the cardiac catheterisation lab: best practice. Heart, 107(1), 76-82.
12. 1. Bjersgård A., En studie på strålskyddskläder, dess användning och användarnas rörelsemönster med ett ergonomiskt perspektiv. Centre for Health Technology Halland (HCH), Halmstad University, Sweden, 2015